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Als kalte Fusion bezeichnet man Verfahren, die eine als Energiequelle nutzbare kontrollierte Kernfusion von Wasserstoff-Isotopen herbeiführen sollen und dazu keine thermonukleare Reaktion, also kein Plasma mit hoher Temperatur und Dichte. Als kalte Fusion bezeichnet man Verfahren, die eine als Energiequelle nutzbare kontrollierte Kernfusion von Wasserstoff-Isotopen herbeiführen sollen und dazu. ColdFusion ist eine für webbasierte Skriptsprachen und Datenbank-Anwendungen konzipierte Middleware. ColdFusion wurde durch Allaire entwickelt. Adobe ColdFusion bietet eine zentrale Plattform zur Entwicklung und Bereitstellung von Web-Anwendungen und Apps. du strategisch geschickter handeln als dein Gegner. kostenlos online auf brasseriedekuluut.nl! Versuch es gleich und spiel Cold Fusion kostenlos auf brasseriedekuluut.nl
cold fusion Bedeutung, Definition cold fusion: 1. a type of nuclear fusion (= joining two nucleii to produce energy) at room temperature that has. ColdFusion ist eine für webbasierte Skriptsprachen und Datenbank-Anwendungen konzipierte Middleware. ColdFusion wurde durch Allaire entwickelt. Übersetzung im Kontext von „cold fusion“ in Englisch-Deutsch von Reverso Context: Faked a paper on cold fusion.
The report presented to the United States Department of Energy DOE in indicated that deuterium-loaded foils could be used to detect fusion reaction products and, although the reviewers found the evidence presented to them as inconclusive, they indicated that those experiments did not use state-of-the-art techniques.
In response to doubts about the lack of nuclear products, cold fusion researchers have tried to capture and measure nuclear products correlated with excess heat.
In the report presented to the DOE in , the reviewers' opinion was divided on the evidence for 4 He; with the most negative reviews concluding that although the amounts detected were above background levels, they were very close to them and therefore could be caused by contamination from air.
One of the main criticisms of cold fusion was that deuteron-deuteron fusion into helium was expected to result in the production of gamma rays —which were not observed and were not observed in subsequent cold fusion experiments.
Researchers in the field do not agree on a theory for cold fusion. This creates a high partial pressure, reducing the average separation of hydrogen isotopes.
However, the reduction in separation is not enough by a factor of ten to create the fusion rates claimed in the original experiment. Electron screening of the positive hydrogen nuclei by the negative electrons in the palladium lattice was suggested to the DOE commission,  but the panel found the theoretical explanations not convincing and inconsistent with current physics theories.
Criticism of cold fusion claims generally take one of two forms: either pointing out the theoretical implausibility that fusion reactions have occurred in electrolysis setups or criticizing the excess heat measurements as being spurious, erroneous, or due to poor methodology or controls.
There are a couple of reasons why known fusion reactions are an unlikely explanation for the excess heat and associated cold fusion claims.
Because nuclei are all positively charged, they strongly repel one another. Paneth and Peters in the s already knew that palladium can absorb up to times its own volume of hydrogen gas, storing it at several thousands of times the atmospheric pressure.
This was also the belief of geologist Palmer, who convinced Steven Jones that the helium-3 occurring naturally in Earth perhaps came from fusion involving hydrogen isotopes inside catalysts like nickel and palladium.
Huizenga says they had misinterpreted the Nernst equation , leading them to believe that there was enough pressure to bring deuterons so close to each other that there would be spontaneous fusions.
Conventional deuteron fusion is a two-step process, [text 6] in which an unstable high-energy intermediary is formed:. Experiments have observed only three decay pathways for this excited-state nucleus, with the branching ratio showing the probability that any given intermediate follows a particular pathway.
Only about one in one million of the intermediaries decay along the third pathway, making its products comparatively rare when compared to the other paths.
The known rate of the decay process together with the inter-atomic spacing in a metallic crystal makes heat transfer of the 24 MeV excess energy into the host metal lattice prior to the intermediary 's decay inexplicable in terms of conventional understandings of momentum and energy transfer,  and even then there would be measurable levels of radiation.
Cold fusion setups utilize an input power source to ostensibly provide activation energy , a platinum group electrode , a deuterium or hydrogen source, a calorimeter , and, at times, detectors to look for byproducts such as helium or neutrons.
Critics have variously taken issue with each of these aspects and have asserted that there has not yet been a consistent reproduction of claimed cold fusion results in either energy output or byproducts.
Some cold fusion researchers who claim that they can consistently measure an excess heat effect have argued that the apparent lack of reproducibility might be attributable to a lack of quality control in the electrode metal or the amount of hydrogen or deuterium loaded in the system.
Critics have further taken issue with what they describe as mistakes or errors of interpretation that cold fusion researchers have made in calorimetry analyses and energy budgets.
In , after Fleischmann and Pons had made their claims, many research groups tried to reproduce the Fleischmann-Pons experiment, without success.
A few other research groups, however, reported successful reproductions of cold fusion during this time. Iyengar and M.
Groups that did report successes found that some of their cells were producing the effect, while other cells that were built exactly the same and used the same materials were not producing the effect.
The claims of cold fusion, however, are unusual in that even the strongest proponents of cold fusion assert that the experiments, for unknown reasons, are not consistent and reproducible at the present time.
Internal inconsistencies and lack of predictability and reproducibility remain serious concerns. The Panel recommends that the cold fusion research efforts in the area of heat production focus primarily on confirming or disproving reports of excess heat.
Some research groups initially reported that they had replicated the Fleischmann and Pons results but later retracted their reports and offered an alternative explanation for their original positive results.
The calculation of excess heat in electrochemical cells involves certain assumptions. Several researchers have described potential mechanisms by which this process could occur and thereby account for excess heat in electrolysis experiments.
Another assumption is that heat loss from the calorimeter maintains the same relationship with measured temperature as found when calibrating the calorimeter.
The ISI identified cold fusion as the scientific topic with the largest number of published papers in , of all scientific disciplines.
He tried to publish his theoretical paper "Cold Fusion: A Hypothesis" in Physical Review Letters , but the peer reviewers rejected it so harshly that he felt deeply insulted, and he resigned from the American Physical Society publisher of PRL in protest.
The number of papers sharply declined after because of two simultaneous phenomena: first, scientists abandoned the field; second, journal editors declined to review new papers.
Consequently, cold fusion fell off the ISI charts. The Journal of Fusion Technology FT established a permanent feature in for cold fusion papers, publishing over a dozen papers per year and giving a mainstream outlet for cold fusion researchers.
When editor-in-chief George H. Miley retired in , the journal stopped accepting new cold fusion papers. The decline of publications in cold fusion has been described as a "failed information epidemic".
Cold fusion reports continued to be published in a small cluster of specialized journals like Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry and Il Nuovo Cimento.
In the Indian multidisciplinary journal Current Science published a special section devoted entirely to cold fusion related papers. In the s, the groups that continued to research cold fusion and their supporters established non-peer-reviewed periodicals such as Fusion Facts , Cold Fusion Magazine , Infinite Energy Magazine and New Energy Times to cover developments in cold fusion and other fringe claims in energy production that were ignored in other venues.
The internet has also become a major means of communication and self-publication for CF researchers. Cold fusion researchers were for many years unable to get papers accepted at scientific meetings, prompting the creation of their own conferences.
Attendees at some of the early conferences were described as offering no criticism to papers and presentations for fear of giving ammunition to external critics,  thus allowing the proliferation of crackpots and hampering the conduct of serious science.
With the founding in of the International Society for Condensed Matter Nuclear Science ISCMNS ,  the conference was renamed the International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science    — for reasons that are detailed in the subsequent research section above — but reverted to the old name in Since , the American Physical Society APS has included cold fusion sessions at their semiannual meetings, clarifying that this does not imply a softening of skepticism.
On 22—25 March , the American Chemical Society meeting included a four-day symposium in conjunction with the 20th anniversary of the announcement of cold fusion.
Researchers working at the U. Although details have not surfaced, it appears that the University of Utah forced the 23 March Fleischmann and Pons announcement to establish priority over the discovery and its patents before the joint publication with Jones.
Hagelstein , who had been sending papers to journals from 5 to 12 April. The U. At least one patent related to cold fusion has been granted by the European Patent Office.
A patent only legally prevents others from using or benefiting from one's invention. However, the general public perceives a patent as a stamp of approval, and a holder of three cold fusion patents said the patents were very valuable and had helped in getting investments.
A Michael Winner film Bullseye! The film — a comedy — concerned conmen trying to steal scientists' purported findings.
However, the film had a poor reception, described as "appallingly unfunny". In Undead Science , sociologist Bart Simon gives some examples of cold fusion in popular culture, saying that some scientists use cold fusion as a synonym for outrageous claims made with no supporting proof,  and courses of ethics in science give it as an example of pathological science.
The plot of The Saint , a action-adventure film, parallels the story of Fleischmann and Pons, although with a different ending.
Despite the secret being lost with his death at the end of the episode, it is implied that another student elsewhere is on a similar track, and may well repeat Todtman's efforts.
In the Spider-Man episode "Dr. Octopus: Armed and Dangerous," Dr. Octavius's lifelong goal was to create a cold fusion reaction in a battery, to serve as an alternate energy source to nuclear reactors.
However, his attempts to do so resulted in a catastrophic explosion, fusing the robotic tentacles he was using to perform his experiments to his spine, turning him into Dr.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the Fleischmann—Pons claims of nuclear fusion at room temperature, and subsequent research.
For the original use of the term "cold fusion", see Muon-catalyzed fusion. For all other definitions, see Cold fusion disambiguation.
Not to be confused with Cold welding. Hypothetical type of nuclear reaction. Beaudette , p. Oriani et al.
This had been in the scientific literature since It seems that the electrical conductivity of heavy water with lithium is considerably less than that of light water with lithium.
And this difference is more than enough to account for the heavy water cell running hotter Langmuir, , pp. It has also been applied to the number of published results, in Huizenga , pp.
Sources: " Burden on the Examiner. Durham , Patent law essentials: a concise guide 2, illustrated ed. Sheldon , How to write a patent application illustrated ed.
We realise that the results reported here raise more questions than they provide answers Daley calculates between and researchers, with damage to their careers.
Archived from the original on 3 November Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London.
Van Siclen and S. Jones, "Piezonuclear fusion in isotopic hydrogen molecules," J. G: Nucl. Bibcode : Natur. London: Routledge. Barnes on 13 and 26 June ".
The Caltech Institute Archives. Retrieved 22 August J 29 June , "Measurement of gamma-rays from cold fusion letter by Fleischmann et al.
Archived from the original on 26 July New York Times. Archived from the original on 19 December Retrieved 27 November Skeptical Inquirer.
Amherst, NY: Center for Inquiry. Prelas, Eric Lukosi. Archived from the original on 18 May Retrieved 18 May Archived from the original on 21 January A , Close , pp.
The cell is calibrated. Archived from the original on 23 December Archived from the original PDF on 31 July Retrieved 31 October Anyone can deliver a paper.
Wholly inoperative inventions; "incredible" utility" , U. Radio Times. Archived from the original on 13 February — via www.
Another computer scientist translated an old article in the Swedish technical journal Ny Teknika. Taubes says: " Ny Teknika seemed to believe that Tanderg had missed on the discovery of the century, done in by an ignorant patent bureau.
When Pons heard the story, he agreed. The department had had its laboratory administrators send emissaries to Washington immediately.
The government laboratories had free reign [ sic ] to pursue their cold fusion research, Ianniello said, to use whatever resources they needed, and DOE would cover the expenses.
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Click on groups of 2 or more plasma pieces of the same color to fuse them and wipe them out. Plan ahead to group more of the same plasma together for bigger fusions and bigger points.
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